Перевод "bhaya"

Автор Ассаджи, 11:27 29 августа 2017

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Доброго времени, друзья!

В санскритско русском-словаре Кочергиной написано:

bhaya n. 1) страх, боязнь чего-л. 2) ужас 3) опасность 4) беда

В словаре Рис-Дейвидза приведена такая статья:

Bhaya (nt.) [fr. bhī, cp. Vedic bhaya, P. bhāyati] fear, fright, dread A ii.15 (jāti -- maraṇa˚); D iii.148, 182; Dh 39, 123, 212 sq., 283; Nd1 371, 409; Pug 56; Vism 512; KhA 108; SnA 155; DhA iii.23. There are some lengthy enumns of objects causing fear (sometimes under term mahabbhaya, mahā -- bhaya), e. g. one of 17 at Miln 196, one of 16 (four times four) at A ii.121 sq., the same in essence, but in different order at Nd2 470, and at VbhA 502; one of 16 (with remark "ādi," and so on) at Vism 645. Shorter combns are to be found at Sn 964 (5, viz. ḍaŋsā, adhipātā, siriŋsapā, manussaphassā,  catuppādā); Vbh 379 (5, viz. ājīvika˚, asiloka˚, parisa -- sārajja˚, maraṇa˚, duggati˚, expld at VbhA 505 sq.), 376 (4: jāti˚, jarā˚, vyādhi˚, maraṇa˚) 367 (3: jāti˚, jarā˚, maraṇ˚); Nd1 402 (2: diṭṭha -- dhammikaŋ & samparāyikaŋ bh.).  -- abhaya absence of fear, safety Vin i.75 (abhay -- ûvara for abhaya -- vara?); Dh 317; J i.150; DhA iii.491.

-- ñāṇa insight into what is to be feared: see Cpd. 66.
-- dassāvin seeing or realising an object of fear, i. e. danger Vbh 244, 247 and passim. -- dassin id. Dh 31, 317.
-- bherava fear & dismay M i.17 (=citt' uttrasassa ca bhayānak' ārammaṇassa adhivacanaŋ MA 113), N. of Suttanta No. 4 in Majjhima (pp. 16 sq.), quoted at Vism 202; SnA 206.

У Рис-Дейвидза нет значения "опасность", но оно встречается в палийских текстах, о чем пишет досточтимый Суджато:

ЦитироватьIn earlier translations this has almost universally been translated as "fear". However, this is a little misleading. Fear is mostly about the inner, emotional response, while bhaya is most commonly used of the thing one is or should be afraid of, the threat or peril, whether internal or external. Hence in more recent translations Ven Bodhi more commonly uses "peril", while I use "danger".

The commentary adopts this perspective. It gives a long explanation of this point, which I will loosely summarize, except for the initial comment, which is important:

Abhayūparatoti abhayo hutvā uparato
Abhayūparato means having become without danger, one is stilled.

It further explains this to mean that one is stilled continuously and uninterruptedly (accantūparato satatūparatoti attho). I think it means something like "safely, securely stilled".

But it also gives another explanation:

Na vā bhayena uparatotipi abhayūparato
Or it was not because of danger that one was stilled, is what abhayūparato means.

It goes on to list four kinds of bhaya: dangers from defilements, samsara, bad rebirth, and being criticized. Ordinary people  have all four of these, trainees have three—having given up the danger of bad rebirth—while an arahant has none. (In this it is clearly drawing from the Puggalapaññatti). It then goes on to raise the problem of  whether or not an arahant is really free from the danger of being criticized, illustrating the issue with a lengthy story.

Anyway, the main point here is that the commentary treats bhaya in terms of things one should be afraid of, not the emotional quality of fear. Obviously these things are closely related, but it is a matter of emphasis.


Действительно, Бхиккху Бодхи в некоторых суттах переводит это слово как "peril":

Цитировать"Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, bhayāni uda­koro­hantassa pāṭikaṅ­khi­tab­bāni. Katamāni cattāri? Ūmibhayaṃ, kumbhīlabhayaṃ, āvaṭṭabhayaṃ, susukābhayaṃ—imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri bhayāni uda­koro­hantassa pāṭikaṅ­khi­tab­bāni.

"Bhikkhus, there are these four perils to be expected for one who enters the water. What four? The peril of waves, the peril of crocodiles, the peril of whirlpools, and the peril of fierce fish. These are the  four perils to be expected for one who enters the water.


Тханиссаро Бхиккху давно использует в некоторых контекстах перевод "danger", как например, в Анагата-бхаяни суттах:


Вместе с тем основное значение этого слова -- конечно, "страх", как например, в сутте:

Цитировать"Katamo ca, bhikkhave, parisākasaṭo? Idha, bhikkhave, yassaṃ parisāyaṃ bhikkhū chandāgatiṃ gacchanti, dosāgatiṃ gacchanti, mohāgatiṃ gacchanti, bhayāgatiṃ gacchanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, parisākasaṭo.

"And what is the dregs of an assembly? The assembly in which the bhikkhus enter upon a wrong course on account of desire, hatred, delusion, or fear is called the dregs of an assembly.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, parisāmaṇḍo? Idha, bhikkhave, yassaṃ parisāyaṃ bhikkhū na chandāgatiṃ gacchanti, na dosāgatiṃ gacchanti, na mohāgatiṃ gacchanti, na bhayāgatiṃ gacchanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, parisāmaṇḍo.

"And what is the cream of an assembly? The assembly in which the bhikkhus do not enter upon a wrong course on account of desire, hatred, delusion, or fear is called the cream of an assembly.