Перевод "kukkucca"

Автор Ассаджи, 10:48 11 октября 2015

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Доброго времени!

Приведу определение из "Буддийского словаря" досточтимого Ньянатилоки:


lit. 'wrongly-performed-ness' (ku+krta+ya),

i.e. scruples, remorse, uneasiness of conscience, worry, is one of the karmically unwholesome (akusala) mental faculties (Tab. II) which, whenever it arises, is associated with hateful (discontented) consciousness (Tab. I and III, 30, 31).

It is the 'repentance over wrong things done, and right things neglected' (Com. to A. I).

Restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca), combined, are counted as one of the 5 mental hindrances (nīvarana).


Из словаря Маргарет Коун:

kukkucca, n.,

1. [cf S. kukṛtya] ill-action or inactivity, misbehaviour; agitation, fidgeting; ...

2. mental agitation (arising from anxiety that one has done or might do wrong, or might fail to do right); a feeling of guilt; remorse; worried (over-scurpulousness); ...


я его перевёл как самоукорение


Досточтимый Аналайо пишет:

5.2 Worry

Due to its close relation to deeds and omissions, the theme of worry is a recurrent topic in the Vinaya . The background stories to numerous rules report that monks were experiencing worry in regard to certain actions, and would only undertake them after receiving explicit permission by the Buddha. Worry in this respect was apparently such a common phenomena that some monks deliberately would try to arouse worry in others. Hence a regulation had to be promulgated to stop such mischief (Vin IV 149). The relatively frequent arising of worry among monastics is also reflected in the circumstance that one of the qualifications for acting as a preceptor for other monks, or for giving dependence to junior monks, is an elder monk's ability to dispel worries in a rightful manner (AN V 72 and 73).

Not all worry, however, is something to be dispelled, since at times worry may be quite appropriate. Just as for those who worry about unnecessary things the influxes ( āsavā ) grow, so too the influxes grow in the case of those who do not worry about things that should be worried about (AN I 85). The worry that arose in the monk Sudinna after he had engaged in sex with his former wife was quite appropriate (Vin III 19), in fact it would have been better if worry had arisen earlier and prevented him from committing this deed. But even i n regard to minor matters worry would be appropriate. Thus a monk was aroused by worry to approach the Buddha and make a formal confession that on an earlier occasion, when the Buddha had emphasized the importance of observing the precepts, this monk had disapprovingly thought to himself that the Buddha was too exacting (AN I 237).

A verse in the Sutta-nipāta relates the removal of worry to the diligent practice of meditation in secluded spots (Sn 925). Another verse in the same collection mentions freedom from worry together with various aspects of restraint in regard to speech, which cover being free from anger, boasting and arrogance, as well as the use of moderate words (Sn 850 ). Though these verses do not establish an explicit relation between the removal of worry and these other qualities, the fact that they are presented together is suggestive. One would indeed expect that the inner certitude gained through meditating in seclusion and through observing such restraint in regard to speech would go a long way in preventing the arising of worry.

At times, worry can also stand for uncertainty in regard to the teachings. This is the case in a discourse in the Saṁyutta-nikāya, which reports how the Buddha visited a monk and inquired whether that monk had any worries (SN IV 46; cf. also SN III 120; SN III 125 and SN IV 48). The monk replied that he indeed had considerable worries, but clarified that nothing blameworthy in regard to ethics had happened for which he would have felt regret. Questioned on the source of his worry, the monk then asked for clarification on some subtler aspect of the teaching. In such instances "worry", kukkucca , is no longer related to moral regret, but instead stands for a type of worry that is concerned with the wish to properly understand the teachings, a case perhaps similar to the above mentioned "restlessness" related to the teachings, dhamm'uddhacca .



Нина ван Горком пишет:

    Regret or worry, kukkucca, is another akusala cetasika which can arise with dosa-mula-citta. It does not arise with every dosa-mula-citta, but when it arises, it arises only with dosa-mula-citta. It cannot arise with lobha-mula-citta or with moha-mula-citta. When there is regret there is also aversion towards the object which is experienced at that moment. Therefore, the feeling which accompanies kukkucca is always unpleasant feeling.

     The Atthasalini (II, Book II, Part IX, Chapter III, 258) gives the following definition of kukkucca:

    ... It has repentance as characteristic, sorrow at deeds of commission and omission as function, regret as manifestation, deeds of commission and omission as proximate cause, and it should be regarded as a state of bondage.

The Visuddhimagga (XIV, 174) gives a similar definition.

The characteristic of kukkucca is repentance. Repentance is generally considered a virtue, but the reality of kukkucca is not wholesome, it arises with dosa-mula-citta. Kukkucca which "regrets" the commission of evil and the omission of kusala is different from wholesome thinking about the disadvantages of akusala and the value of kusala. The conventional term "worry" which is also used as translation of kukkucca may not be clear either. When we say that we worry, it may not be the reality of kukkucca but it may be thinking with aversion about an unpleasant object without there being kukkucca. For example, we may worry about the way how to solve a problem in the future; this kind of worry is not the reality of kukkucca.

      If we take note of the proximate cause of kukkucca we will better understand what kukkucca is. The proximate cause of kukkucca is akusala kamma through body, speech and mind which has been committed and also kusala kamma through body, speech and mind which has been omitted. We read in the Dhammasangani (1304 and 1305):

    Which are the states that conduce to remorse?:
         Misconduct in act, word and thought. Besides, all bad states
    conduce to remorse.
         Which are the states that do not conduce to remorse?
         Goad conduct in act, word and thought. Besides, no good states (absence of good states) conduce to remorse.

The Atthasalini (II, Book II, Part II, Chapter II, 389, 390) explains this passage of the Dhammasangani:

    In the exposition of the couplet of what "conduces to remorse" (Dhammasangani, 1304), "remorse" arises from what has been done and what has been left undone. Acts of misconduct burn from commission, acts of good conduct burn from omission. Thus a person feels remorse (literally: burns) at the thought, "I have misconducted myself", "I have left undone the right act", "I have spoken amiss", ...I have left undone the right thoughts", Similarly with what does not "conduce to remorse" Thus a person doing goad does not feel remorse over acts of commission or omission.

When we have slandered or spoken harsh words there may be remorse about it afterwards. There can also be remorse about our neglectfulness of kusala, we often waste opportunities for kusala. We may be stingy when there is an opportunity for giving or for praising someone who deserves praise. Or we are neglectful as to the development of fight understanding of realities. As a consequence of our omission of kusala regret may arise.

     We read in the Middle Length Sayings (III, 129, Discourse on Fools and the Wise) about the anguishes which may be experienced by a fool who has done wrong deeds through body, speech and mind. He experiences anguish because other people talk about his akusala, and thus he acquires a bad name. He fears punishment for his evil deeds and therefore he experiences anguish. Moreover, he has remorse because of his evil deeds and his neglectfulness as to kusala. we read:

    And again, monks. while a fool is on a chair or bed or lying on the ground, at such a time those evil deeds that he has formerly wrongly done by body, speech and thought rest on him, lie on him, settle on him. Monks, as at eventide the shadows of the great mountain peaks rest, lie and settle on earth, so, monks, do these evil deeds that the fool has formerly wrongly done by body, speech and thought rest, lie and settle on him as he is on a chair or bed or lying on the ground. Thereupon, monks, it occurs thus to the fool: indeed what is lovely has not been done by me, what is stilled has not been done, no refuge against fearful (consequences) has been made, evil has been done, cruelty has been done, violence has been done. Insofar as there is a bourn for those who have not done what is lovely, ham not done what is stilled, have not made a refuge against fearful (consequences), who ham done evil, cruelty and violence, to that bourn I am going hereafter". He grieves, mourns, laments, beats his breast, wails and falls into disillusionment.

The committing of akusala kamma and the omitting of kusala kamma is a condition for remorse and because of this remorse one is unhappy, one does not have peace of mind. Akusala kamma can produce an unhappy rebirth and also unpleasant experiences through the senses in the course of life. Regret is one of the "hindrances" (nivaranas) and as such it forms a pair with restlessness, uddhacca. The "hindrances" are akusala cetasikas which hinder the performing of kusala. When regret arises there cannot be kusala at that moment. we read in the definition of regret that it should be regarded as a state of bondage. The citta with regret is not free, it is enslaved. At such a moment there is no peacefulness, no happiness. If one has not studied the Dhamma and if one does not know about the different types of am which arise there are less conditions for the cultivation of kusala. If kusala is not developed there are more akusala cittas and thus also more opportunities for the arising of remorse.

The monk who has to observe the rules of the Vinaya may have worry with regard to his observance of these rules. He may have scruples and he may even wrongly assume that he transgresses a rule or that he observes a rule, worry and doubt may arise because of this. We read in the Dhammasangani (Chapter IX, 1161):

    What is worry (kukkucca)?

    Consciousness of what is lawful in something that is unlawful;
    consciousness of what is unlawful in something that is lawful (1 Referring to rules pertaining to things such as kinds of food or the how of the meal.);
    consciousness of what is immoral in something that is moral;
    consciousness of what is immoral in something that is immoral- all this
    sort of worry, fidgeting, overscrupulousness, remorse of conscience, mental scarifying- this is what is called worry.

It is hard to eradicate regret. Even the sotapanna may still have regret, although he has no conditions for regret on account of akusala kamma which is of the intensity to produce an unhappy rebirth; he has eradicated the tendencies to such evil deeds. The sotapanna still has lobha-mula citta, dosa-mula-citta and moha-mula-citta. He does not have dosa-mula-citta with envy or stinginess, but dosa-mula-citta still arises, and sometimes it may be accompanied by regret. He may speak harshly, or he may have laziness as to the performing of kusala, and on account of this regret can arise. The sotapanna is bound to have regret less often than those who are non-ariyans. When one has not attained enlightenment one may be often inclined to brood over the past. The sotapanna has developed the four "Applications of Mindfulness", and thus he has less conditions than the non-ariyan to worry about the past. When regret arises he realizes that it is only a conditioned dhamma, sankhara dhamma, and he does not take it for self.

      We still consider regret as "my regret". We regret out akusala and our lack of mindfulness. If we realize that thinking with worry is not helpful it may be a condition to cultivate kusala. When there is forgetfulness of realities we should remember that is a conditioned reality, not self. We should know the characteristics of akusala dhammas which arise as not self. Then there will be less regret.

     According to the Visuddhimagga (XXII, 71) the anagami has eradicated regret completely (2 According to the Atthasalini (Book II. Part II, Chapter II, 384) the sotapanna has eradicated regret, the sotapanna has eradicated regret pertaining to coarse defilements, whereas the anagami has eradicated regret which also pertains to subtle defilements.) For him dosa-mula-citta does not arise anymore and thus regret cannot arise either.



Из словаря Монье-Вильямса:

(H3) ku--kṛtya [p= 285,3] [L=50924]    n. an evil deed, wickedness Pañcat.  Hit.