Автор Shus, 09:58 09 июля 2018
ЦитироватьKathaṃ bhāvitā ca bhikkhave, ānāpānasati kathaṃ bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhū araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā so satova assasati, sato passasati. И каким образом памятование о дыхании, когда его развивают и постоянно практикуют, приводит к совершенству все четыре способа установления памятования?При этом, монахи, монах уходит в лес, под крону дерева, или в пустынное место, садится, скрестив свои ноги, держит тело прямо и устанавливает памятование возле рта. Постоянно памятуя, он вдыхает, и памятуя, он выдыхает.
Цитата: Ассаджи от 16:34 09 июля 2018 Sihasana Pallanka (Great Lion Throne) was used during Konbaung Dynasty (1752 to 1885). It weighed approximately 1 ton, was approximately 14 feet in height and was 15 feet wide and five feet long. Thrones used by the Myanmar Kings in ancient and historical times have included: 1) the Sihasana Pallanka (Lion Throne); 2) Hamsasana Pallanka (Hamsa Throne); 3) Gijasana Pallanka (Elephant Throne); 4) Mayurasana Pallanka (Peacock Throne); 5) Bhamarasana Pallanka (Bumble Bee Throne); 6) Padumasana Pallanka (Lotus Throne); 7) Sinkhasana Pallanka (Conch Shell Throne); 8) Migasana Pallanka; (Deer Throne). http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Myanmar/sub5_5f/entry-3100.html
Цитата: Ассаджи от 18:37 09 июля 2018Опять же, таких поз в Тхераваде нет. Есть только сидения и престолы.
ЦитироватьThe Buddha images assume different mudras (hand-gestures) like Dhammacakkamudra, Jhanamudra, Vittakamudra, Abhyamudra, Bhumiphassamudra, Varadamudra , etc and various asanas (leg-postures) like Pallankasana, Maharajadhipatiasana, Maharajalalitasana, Padamasana, etc .
Цитата: VAJIRAÑĀṇA MAHATHERA "Buddhist Meditation in Theory and Practice", стр. 106-7Posture The usual ascetic posture is sitting down cross-legged, and this was the position used by the Buddha when He attained enlightenment. This posture is, therefore, regarded as affording the means whereby one realizes complete enlightenment, or Buddhahood. Its Sanskrit name is Buddhāsana, the "Buddha posture", or vajrāsana, the "diamond throne", upon which the Buddha conquered Māra, the Evil One. In the scriptures, it is described by the phrase (Dīgha Nikāya I, 71, II, 291; Majjhima Nikāya I, 56; Vinaya I, 119; Vibhanga 252; etc.): Pallankaṃ ābhujitvā, ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya, parimukhaṃ satiṃ upasshapetvā, "he sits down assuming a cross-legged position, placing the body upright, setting mindfulness in front [of him]." The Commentaries explain pallanka as "urubaddhāsana", "the position that is assumed when one sits down cross-legged". This posture is represented in the seated image of the Buddha, which is called samādhipiḷima, "the image of the meditation posture", in Sinhalese. When this posture is assumed, the right leg is crossed over the left; the feet are resting upon the upper portion of the thighs; the soles are turned upward; the hands are placed just below the level of the navel, with the bend of the wrists pressed against the thighs, bracing the upper part of the body; the spinal column is straight, like a pile of coins, one coin on top of another. The diaphragm is expanded to its maximum fullness; the chin is up; the sight is fixed on the tip of the nose or else straight in front (as implied by parimukhaṃ satiṃ upasshapetvā, "setting mindfulness in front [of him]"). This posture is recommended for general use in meditation, and, in the practice of mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānasati), it is necessary to assume this posture, for, otherwise, the breathing cannot be grasped as the mental image of meditation in its regular and normal form. It is, therefore, definitely associated in the scriptures with that practice. A passage in the Majjhima Nikāya (III, 135), however, gives walking to and fro as an alternative. The recommended sitting postures are illustrated below: (см. вложение)According to the Visuddhimagga, a disciple who practices the kasiṇa meditation should sit on a small chair comfortably arranged when he or she gazes at the kasiṇa device. Once the mental object is grasped, he or she may meditate in any of the above postures that may be convenient and in which he or she can remain for a long period of time without physical discomfort. In the practice of the asubha meditation, a disciple should sit or stand gazing at the object of asubha, and, after attaining the image (nimitta), he or she may continue his or her practice in another posture. There are, however, no mandatory rules laid down concerning time and posture for meditation. One is free to choose any time and any posture that may be convenient for him or her, as long as the back is kept perfectly straight. But, once chosen, he or she should adhere to a set routine from the very beginning of his or her training.
Цитата: Ajahn Lee Dhammadharo "Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi", стр. 23Sit in a half-lotus position, right leg on top of the left leg, your hands placed palm-up on your lap, right hand on top of the left. Keep your body straight...
Цитата: Buddhadasa Bhikkhu "Anapanasati", стр. 74Suitable Posture is any one of the four postures—sitting, lying, standing, and walking—that is beneﬁcial to the practice. Which particular posture is to be preferred can be discovered by personal experiment. The meditator must ﬁnd out in which posture his mind can most easily become concentrated and remain so. Having found his Suitable Posture, he should keep to it. Once he has become proﬁcient in concentration he can use the remaining three postures as well so that he can develop one-pointedness regardless of posture.
Цитата: Henepola Gunaratana "Mindfulness in Plain English"The practice of meditation has been going on for several thousand years. That is quite a bit of time for experimentation, and the procedure has been very, very thoroughly refined. Buddhist practice has always recognized that the mind and body are tightly linked and that each influences the other. Thus there are certain recommended physical practices which will greatly assist you to master your skill. And these practices should be followed. Keep in mind, however, that these postures are practice aids. Don't confuse the two. Meditation does not mean sitting in the lotus position. It is a mental skill. It can be practiced anywhere you wish. But these postures will help you learn this skill and they speed your progress and development. So use them. General Rules The purpose of the various postures is threefold. First, they provide a stable feeling in the body. This allows you to remove your attention from such issues as balance and muscular fatigue, so that you can then center your concentration upon the formal object of meditation. Second, they promote physical immobility which is then reflected by an immobility of mind. This creates a deeply settled and tranquil concentration. Third, they give you the ability to sit for a long period of time without yielding to the meditator's three main enemies--pain, muscular tension and falling asleep. The most essential thing is to sit with your back straight. The spine should be erect with the spinal vertebrae held like a stack of coins, one on top of the other. Your head should be held in line with the rest of the spine. All of this is done in a relaxed manner. No Stiffness. You are not a wooden soldier, and there is no drill sergeant. There should be no muscular tension involved in keeping the back straight. Sit light and easy. The spine should be like a firm young tree growing out of soft ground. The rest of the body just hangs from it in a loose, relaxed manner. This is going to require a bit of experimentation on your part. We generally sit in tight, guarded postures when we are walking or talking and in sprawling postures when we are relaxing. Neither of those will do. But they are cultural habits and they can be re-learned. Your objective is to achieve a posture in which you can sit for the entire session without moving at all. In the beginning, you will probably feel a bit odd to sit with the straight back. But you will get used to it. It takes practice, and an erect posture is very important. This is what is known in physiology as a position of arousal, and with it goes mental alertness. If you slouch, you are inviting drowsiness. What you sit on is equally important. You are going to need a chair or a cushion, depending on the posture you choose, and the firmness of the seat must be chosen with some care. Too soft a seat can put you right to sleep. Too hard can promote pain.Traditional Postures When you are sitting on the floor in the traditional Asian manner, you need a cushion to elevate your spine. Choose one that is relatively firm and at least three inches thick when compressed. Sit close to the front edge of the cushion and let your crossed legs rest on the floor in front of you. If the floor is carpeted, that may be enough to protect your shins and ankles from pressure. If it is not, you will probably need some sort of padding for your legs. A folded blanket will do nicely. Don't sit all the way back on the cushion. This position causes its front edge to press into the underside of your thigh, causing nerves to pinch. The result will be leg pain. There are a number of ways you can fold your legs. We will list four in ascending order of preference.1. American indian style. Your right foot is tucked under the left knee and left foot is tucked under your right knee. 2. Burmese style. Both of your legs lie flat on the floor from knee to foot. They are parallel with each other and one in front of the other. 3. Half lotus. Both knees touch the floor. One leg and foot lie flat along the calf of the other leg. 4. Full lotus. Both knees touch the floor, and your legs are crossed at the calf. Your left foot rests on the right thigh, and your right foot rests on the left thigh. Both soles turn upward. In these postures, your hands are cupped one on the other, and they rest on your lap with the palms turned upward. The hands lie just below the navel with the bend of each wrist pressed against the thigh. This arm position provides firm bracing for the upper body. Don't tighten your neck muscles. Relax your arms. Your diaphragm is held relaxed, expanded to maximum fullness. Don't let tension build up in the stomach area. Your chin is up. Your eyes can be open or closed. If you keep them open, fix them on the tip of your nose or in the middle distance straight in front. You are not looking at anything. You are just putting your eyes in some arbitrary direction where there is nothing in particular to see, so that you can forget about vision. Don't strain. Don't stiffen and don't be rigid. Relax, let the body be natural and supple. Let it hang from the erect spine like a rag doll. Half and full lotus positions are the traditional meditation postures in Asia. And the full lotus is considered the best. It is the most solid by far. Once you are locked into this position, you can be completely immovable for a very long period. Since it requires a considerable flexibility in the legs, not everybody can do it. Besides, the main criterion by which you choose a posture for yourself is not what others say about it. It is your own comfort. Choose a position which allows you to sit the longest without pain, without moving. Experiment with dif ferent postures. The tendons will loosen with practice. And then you can work gradually towards the full lotus. Using A Chair Sitting on the floor may not be feasible for you because of pain or some other reason. No problem. You can always use a chair instead. Pick one that has a level seat, a straight back and no arms. It is best to sit in such a way that your back does not lean against the back of the chair. The front of the seat should not dig into the underside of your thighs. Place your legs side by side,feet flat on the floor. As with the traditional postures, place both hands on your lap, cupped one upon the other. Don't tighten your neck or shoulder muscles, and relax your arms. Your eyes can be open or closed. In all the above postures, remember your objectives. You want to achieve a state of complete physical stillness, yet you don't want to fall asleep. Recall the analogy of the muddy water. You want to promote a totally settled state of the body which will engender a corresponding mental settling. There must also be a state of physical alertness which can induce the kind of mental clarity you seek. So experiment. Your body is a tool for creating desired mental states. Use it judiciously.