Перевод 'manasikāra'

Автор Ассаджи, 14:29 08 октября 2013

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Флорин Деляну пишет:

The term manaskāra is usually translated in modem Buddhist studies as 'attention', 'mental orientation', etc. In Abhidharma literature, it represents an important psychological function and doctrinal category. The Kosa lists manaskāra as one of the eleven mahābhāmikas or functions omnipresent in all mental activity (sarvacetasi) (cf. AKBh 54,17: kārikā n, 24). AKBh 54,23 defines it as: manaskāras cetasa ābhogah, 'manaskāra refers to the orientation of the mind'.The equivalent passage in Xuanzang's translation reads: {иероглифы} or 'manaskāra means that by which the mind is made to be alert' (T29.19a21). De la Vallee Poussin renders thesentence as 'le manaskāra est l'inflexion (ābhoga) de la pensee (cetas)' (Poussin vol. 1, p. 154).The basic meaning of ābhoga, which comes from the root bhuj, is 'bending', 'curve', or 'winding'. In the above context, it refers to directing or applying the mind on a cognitive object. One could also say that ābhoga represents an 'effort' (which is actually one of the derived senses of the word!) made in order 'to curve' or ' to bend' the mind into the desired form. An identical definition is found at Trim 20,11-12 (cf. Tiwary ed. 1967, 40). Sthiramati continues: ābhujanam ābhogah. ālambane yena cittam abhimukhīkriyate. sa punar ālambane cittadhāraṇakarmā. 'Orientation means being directed. It is that by which the mind is made toface the object. Furthermore, its function is to keep the mind fixed unto the object.' The parallel passage in Xuanzang's translation of the Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi reads: {иероглифы} (T31.11c6) 'The nature of attention is its being able to alert the mind. Its function is to keep the mind fixed to the object'. (cf. Cook tr. 1999,69, for a somewhat different rendering).

As far as the above sense is regarded, manaskāra can certainly be translated as 'attention' or'mental orientation'. When clearly referring to this psychological function, I also translate manaskāra as 'attention'. However, rendering manaskāra in the sapta manaskārāh, the key conceptual and technical framework of Yogasthana IV in the SrBh, as 'attention' or 'mental orientation' would not convey its full and exact meaning. Manaskāra is here more than what  'attention' usually means in English. It represents the very backbone of the spiritual practice leading the yogi to the mastery of the eight meditative attainments (the mundane path) or to the realisation of the Four Noble Truths and consequent Liberation (the supramundane path). Though not common in modern Buddhist studies, translating it as 'contemplation' does, I believe, more justice to this sense. Rendering one word in the source-language by means of two or more different terms in the target-language may upset our sense of balance and uniformity, but such an approach seems unavoidable in quite a few cases. To the extent translation can be said to represent an art, criticism for lack of perfect equivalence may be justifiable  (though thisis, admittedly, a classicist argument for uniformity, which a romantic would anyway repudiate!). To the extent translation can be declared to come closer to science, I think there are no a priori reasons which would invalidate the fact that different connotations of one word in the source-language may be reflected by different terms when the target-language has no lexeme sharing a similar or quasi-similar semantic sphere.

A similar rendering for manaskāra is actually used by Schmithausen (1987a). Other solutions include those put forward by Griffiths (1983, 426-432) and Choi (2001, 77-86). In his translation of a passage in the AbhSamBh parallel to the SrBh (see below), Griffiths renders manaskāra as 'act of attention'. This seems to me rather weak to convey the sense of intense and repeated exercise which manaskāra implies. Choi's translation of manaskāra in the Xianyang lun passages parallel to the SrBh (see below) as Konzentrationsakt may be appropriate for the German language, but in English, 'concentration act' or even 'concentration' do not appear to convey the whole intensity of the Sanskrit term.

XX. The Chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamarga) in the Sravakabhumi: A Trilingual Edition (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese), Annotated Translation, and Introductory Study. Volume II
стр. 115


Шмитхаузен (1987а) переводит "манаскара" как "(focusing of) attention".
Отсюда возможный перевод "настройка".


В Вибханге тоже как близкие по значению слова приводятся слова ābhoga, āvaṭṭanā, samannāhāra.

936. Tattha katamo ayoniso manasikāro? Anicce ''nicca''nti ayoniso manasikāro, dukkhe ''sukha''nti ayoniso manasikāro, anattani ''attā''ti ayoniso manasikāro, asubhe ''subha''nti ayoniso manasikāro, saccavippaṭikulena vā cittassa āvaṭṭanā anāvaṭṭanā ābhogo samannāhāro manasikāro – ayaṃ vuccati ''ayoniso manasikāro''.

По словарю Маргарет Коун,

ābhoga 1. (m.) particular concentration, consideration; attention, concern, involvement; speciic intention or mention or instruction;...

āvaṭṭanā 2. turning, directing; converting, conbersion; seducing;...

По словарю Рис-Девидса:

samannāhāra concentration, bringing together
samannāhārati 1. to concentrate the mind on, to consider, reflect

В Петакопадесе приводится глагол "abhinīharati" - "draws out; stretches out (towards); moves (thought) towards, intends; effects":

Ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro nāma yo yathādesite dhamme bahiddhā ārammaṇaṃ anabhinīharitvā yoniso manasikāro – ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.


Досточтимый Аналайо пишет:

6.2 Attention (Manasikāra)

Translated literally, manasi karoti means to "do" or to "make" something "in the mind". Being one of the constituents of "name", nāma (MN I 53), manasikāra is an ever-present aspect of the mind. As such, manasikāra lies at the origin of all experienced phenomena (AN IV 339); since phenomena arise with the arising of attention (SN V 184).

Given that manasikāra is present in all states of mind, from the perspective of mental cultivation the crucial question is: To what object and in what manner is this faculty of attention di-rected? If, for example, manasikāra focuses on the feature of physical beauty, lust will invade the mind (MN I 26). Or else, if manasikāra dwells on the bad qualities of another person, anger will arise (AN III 187). Taking into account the need of avoiding the dire consequences of wrongly directed manasi-kāra, the Buddha would teach his disciples how attention should be directed (DN I 214). This "how" of directing attention should be yoniso, that is: "wise", "thorough" and "appropriate".



Пия Тан пишет:

"Attention" (manasi,kāra), according to the Abhidhamma, is the very first stage of the mind's encounter with an object, and it holds the associated mental factors to the object. As such, it is a prominent factor in two specific classes of consciousness, that is, advertence (āvajjana) at the five-sense doors and at the mind-door. These two states of consciousness, breaking through into the life continuum (bhav-aṅga), form the first stage of the perceptual process (citta,vīthi).



Бхиккху Бодхи в переводе Абхидхамматтха-сангахи пишет:

    The Pali word literally means "making in the mind." Attention is the mental factor responsible for the mind's advertence to the object, by virtue of which the object is made present to consciousness. Its characteristic is the conducting (sāraṇa) of the associated mental states towards the object. Its function is to yoke the associated states to the object. It is manifested as confrontation with an object, and its proximate cause is the object. Attention is like the rudder of a ship, which directs it to its destination, or like a charioteer who sends the well-trained horses (i.e. the associated states) towards their destination (the object). Manasikāra should be distinguished from vitakka: while the former turns its concomitants towards the object, the latter applies them onto the object. Manasikāra is an indispensable cognitive factor present in all states of consciousness; vitakka is a specialized factor which is not indispensable to cognition.

В Аттхасалини (I, часть IV, глава 1, 133) и Висуддхимагге (XIV, 152) manasikāra определяется так::

    ...It has the characteristic of driving associated states towards the object, the function of joining (yoking) associated states to the object, the manifestation of facing the object. It is included in the saṅkhārakkhandha, and should be regarded as the charioteer of associated states because it regulates the object.


Из словаря досточтимого Нянатилоки:

manasikāra  'attention', 'mental advertence', 'reflection'.

1. As a psychological term, attention belongs to the formation-group (sankhāra-kkhandha; s. Tab. II) and is one of the 7 mental factors (cetasika) that are inseparably associated with all states of consciousness (s. cetanā). In M. 9, it is given as one of the factors representative of mind (nāma) It is the mind's first 'confrontation with an object' and 'binds the associated mental factors to the object.' It is, therefore, the prominent factor in two specific classes of consciousness: i.e. 'advertence (āvajjana, q.v.) at the five sense-doors' (Tab. I, 70) and at the mind-door (Tab. I, 71). These two states of consciousness, breaking through the subconscious life-continuum (bhavanga), form the first stage in the perceptual process (citta-vīthi; s. viññāna-kicca). See Vis.M. XIV, 152.

2. In a more general sense, the term appears frequently in the Suttas as yoniso-manasikāra, 'wise (or reasoned, methodical) attention' or 'wise reflection'. It is said, in M. 2, to counteract the cankers (āsava, q.v.); it is a condition for the arising of right view (s. M. 43), of Stream-entry (s. sotāpattiyanga), and of the factors of enlightenment (s. S. XLVI, 2.49,51). - 'Unwise attention' (ayoniso-manasikāra) leads to the arising of the cankers (s. M. 2) and of the five hindrances (s. S. XLVI, 2.51).



Из Абхидхарма-самуччаи:

manaskāraḥ katamaḥ / cetasa ābhogaḥ / ālambanacitta dhāraṇakarmakaḥ //

What is attention (manaskāra)? It is mental teacity (cetasa ābhogaḥ). Its function consists of keeping the mind (citta dhāraṇa) on the object (ālambana).