Перевод 'kāyena'

Автор Ассаджи, 20:38 07 декабря 2015

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Досточимый Аналайо пишет:

According to the Majjhima-nikāya version, the distinguishing mark between the two types of arahant in this listing, both of which no longer need to work with diligence, is that the one who is "liberated-both-ways" (ubhatobhāgavimutta) has personal experience of the immaterial liberations, while the one who is "liberated-by-wisdom" (paññāvimutta) has no such personal experience of the immaterial liberations.203 

203 MN 70 at MN I 477, 26 : "he lives having directly experienced the peaceful immaterial liberations that are beyond form", ye te santā vimokhā atikkamma rūpe aruppā te kāyena phassitvā viharati (Be -MN II 143,2, Ce -MN II 242,26, and Se -MN II 229,5: vimokkhā, Be and Se also read phusitvā, instead of phassitvā). The expression kāyena phusitvā, literally "having touched with the body", is an idiomatic expression for personal experience (cf. PED 479 s.v. phusati 1, which clarifies that the usage of this verb is not confined to physical touch, cf. also Findly 200 2: 258). A broader meaning for the term kāya is also evident, for example, in the term sakkāya, which stands for the whole of one's "personality", not only for its physical aspects, cf. also PED: 207 s.v. kāya. In the present instance, kāyena does not refer to experiencing an immaterial attainment "through the physical body" and thus has implications quite different from the same expression kāyena phusitvā, when this occurs in relation to the physical experience of touch, phoṭṭhabba, e.g., in MN 27 at MN I 180,33. The same holds also for the expression kāyena c'eva paramasaccaṁ sacchikaroti found later in MN 70 at MN I 480,9, where again, pace de Silva 1987b: 30, the reference is not to realizing the ultimate truth "with the physical body", but rather "with one's whole being", i.e., "directly". Ps III 191,12 glosses kāyena with nāmakāyena, literally the "name-body", an expression that stands for the mind (cf. also its use in DN 15 at DN II 62, 15+23+26, where it indeed stands for the whole of the mind, except consciousness). Katz 1982/1989: 80 aptly translates kāyena phusitvā in a similar context as "having come into intimate contact with", Radich 2007: 263 explains that this expression conveys the sense "to know directly and certainly from personal experience"; cf. also Harvey 2009a: 180 note 10. A convenient way of rendering kāyena into German, suggested to me by one of my students, would be "leibhaftig", which, while preserving the term "body" (Leib), at the same time clearly conveys the sense of a direct experience. Schmithausen 1981: 214 note 50 and 249 ad. note 50 points out that the corresponding expression in Jain works refers to rules of conduct for householders and to monastic vows, occurrences where a literal translation as "touching with the body" would also not be appropriate. According to Lüders 1954: 162, the expression dhammaṁ kāyena passati in Dhp 259 is probably a textual error for the same idiomatic expression kāyena phusati, a suggestion confirmed by the reading ka'ena phaṣa'i in the parallel Gāndhārī Dharmapada stanza 114 in Brough 1962/2001: 135 (cf. also ibid. pp. 211-212), and the reading kāyena vai spṛśet in the corresponding Udāna-(varga) stanza 4:21 in Bernhard 1965: 133, so that this stanza would also be referring to a "direct experience" of the Dharma.