Перевод "yoniso"

Автор Ассаджи, 14:48 20 марта 2016

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Доброго времени!

Досточтимый Аналайо пишет:

6.1 Wise (Yoniso)

The term yoniso derives from yoni, which stands for a "womb", a "matrix", or a "place of origin". Thus yoniso can convey the sense of doing something "thoroughly" or in a "penetrative" manner, in the sense of going "down to its origins". The idea of doing something in a penetrative manner can be seen in a simile that describes how examining a lump of foam in a manner that is yoniso leads to the realization that this lump of foam is empty of any substance (SN III 140). In the context of this simile, yoniso conveys the idea of penetrating through the outer surface of phenomena – in this case the surface of a lump of foam – and thereby realizing the true nature of what is found beneath this surface. 

The nuance of thoroughness, in the sense of doing something intensively, recurs in a description of someone who is stirred by the prospect of disease or death and thereon endeavours "thoroughly", yoniso, in order to progress on the path to liberation (AN II 115). Another example would be a verse, which proclaims that the deathless can be attained even today by those who apply themselves "thoroughly" (Thī 513). A monk who in this way "thoroughly" endeavours will reach the destruction of dukkha (It 10). The idea of thoroughness would also be relevant for an occurrence of yoniso in a verse that compares "thoroughly" restraining the mind to a mahout who controls an elephant (Dhp 326). 

At times, yoniso can also convey the sense of "proper" or "appropriate". This meaning underlies a passage where a king finds out that the Buddhist monastics make good use of robe material given to them, as once their robes become worn, they employ the cloth as mattress coverings, foot-wipers, etc., and the shreds left over after such usage are kneaded with mud and used for construction work. This convinces the king that the monks make use of the cloth they receive in a "proper" manner, yoniso (Vin II 292). The nuance of appropriateness could also be relevant to a passage in the Bhūmija-sutta, according to which it is not beneficial to live the holy life in an "improper" manner, ayoniso (MN III 138).

Besides the nuances of thoroughness and appropriateness, yoniso often conveys the idea of doing something in a "wise" manner. This sense of the term becomes particularly evident with a set of similes, where the opposite term ayoniso stands for doing something in an "unwise" or even "foolish" manner. 

One of these similes describes a woman wondering if the child she is pregnant with will be a male and thus become the heir to the family's wealth. In order to find out, she takes a knife and cuts open her own belly. As a result, she passes away together with the embryo. Such a way of acting is to seek for an inheritance in an "unwise" manner, ayoniso, like fools would do (DN II 331). 

The same imagery of seeking for something in an "unwise" manner, ayoniso, recurs in another simile which describes how a group of villagers tries to find the sound of a trumpet by speaking to the trumpet, shaking it and hitting it (DN II 337). 

A third instance of the same imagery involves making a fire. Here someone tries to kindle a fire by just chopping up the fire sticks, a rather "unwise" manner, ayoniso, of searching for fire (DN II 341). These three similes employ ayoniso in a way that clearly suggests the nuance of "wise" for the opposite term yoniso. 

The sense of doing something in a "wise" manner as a central implication of the qualification yoniso finds confirmation in several occurrences of the term itself. Thus to put questions in a way that is yoniso, or to answer them in such a way, is the hallmark of a wise person (AN I 103). In contrast, one who is not capable of asking questions in such a manner will be reckoned a fool (DN I 118).

Another type of context involves "wisely" reflecting on the import of the teachings one has heard (Th 347). To investigate the teachings in a manner that is yoniso leads to purification and wisdom (SN I 34 and AN IV 3). Thus yoniso can qualify the type of wise mental investigation that leads to liberation (Thī 85); or stand for wisely seeing with insight the true characteristics of reality (Th 1117). 

In summary, yoniso in its early canonical usage conveys a sense of doing something "thoroughly", in an "appropriate" manner, and "wisely". These nuances cannot be neatly separated from each other and, even though at times one of these meanings may be prominent, in some instances it would be difficult to decide in favour of just one of them. Thus the above selection of examples only intends to reflect the range of nuances conveyed by yoniso, without thereby implying that each occurrence has to necessarily correspond to only one of these three related meanings. An example for the convergence of these three nuances would be a verse that describes how a monk reached liberation after having practised in a yoniso manner (Th 158). His practice would need to have been "thorough", must have been "proper", and certainly was "wise".



Пия Тан пишет:

"Wise" (yoniso) comes from yoni, meaning "the womb,origin (place of birth)." As such, yoniso means "down to its origin or foundation" (PED), that is to say, going down to the roots of reality. In practice, this refers to what is impure as impure, what is painful aspainful, what is not self as not self, and what is foul as foul, that is, to see things as they really are.



Досточтимый Дхамманандо пишет:

I used to like Ñāṇamoli's reasoned vs. unreasoned. Nowadays I prefer grounded vs. groundless.

yoniso ca manasikāro ca, yonisomanasikaro ti.
It is with grounds and it is attention, therefore it is grounded attention.

ayoniso ca manasikāro ca, ayonisomanasikaro ti.
It is without grounds and it is attention, therefore it is groundless attention.

yoniso ca manasikaroti ca, yonisomanasikarotī ti.
It is with grounds and he attends, therefore he attends groundedly.

ayoniso ca manasikaroti ca, ayonisomanasikarotī ti.
It is without grounds and he attends, therefore he attends groundlessly.


Из Критического словаря пали:

a-yoniso , ind., neg. of yoniso; inconsiderately, unwisely; often combined with manasikāra (m.) and with manasi-karoti (see ayoniso-manasikāra below) and preceded by a-ppaṭi-saṁkhā; ~o dāyajjaṁ gavesanti, DN II 331,23 foll. (= anupāyena, Sv); yoniso ca manasikāraṁ (acc), ~o ca manasikāraṁ, MN I 7,6 (Ps: 'ayoniso-manasikāro' ti anupāya-manasikāro); ~o manasikaroto (part. gen.) anuppannā . . . āsavā uppajjanti, MN I 7,7 (cf. SN V 84,29; AN I 3,6 foll.; 200,10 foll.); so evam ~o manasikaroti, MN I 8,3; ~o brahmacariyaṁ carati, a-yonisosikāro, AN I 81,21 foll.; tadâhaṁ pāpikaṁ diṭṭhiṁ paṭilacchiṁ ~o, Ja V 71,4*; ayaṁ selo vināsāya pariciṇṇo ~o, Ja VI 180,12* (= anupāyena, Ct.); there ~o cittaṁ uppādetvā, Dhp-a I 327,17; ~o āhāraṁ āhāreti, Dhs 1346 (~o ti anupāyena, As 401,24) = Pp 21,7; ~o ummujjanto, Pv-a 113,11; ~o bhoge saṁharitvā, Pv-a 278,21 ; ~o paṭipattiyā, Vism 32,11; ~o pavattayato, ib. 230,1;
— °-citta, n., an unreasonable mind, Jsl II 276,2* (Ct.);
— °-manasikāra, m., unmethodical thought, unwise attention; nom. ~o, DN III 273,3 (= anicce niccan ti ādinā pavatto uppatha-manasikāro, Sv); AN I 4,1; 13,1; 14,22; 16,13; 200,27; V 86,27; 113,16-117,1; Dhp-a III 275,9 (chabbidhassa agocarassa sevanaṁ idha ~o nāma); assāda-manasikāra-lakkhaṇo ~o, Nett 28,18; 79,10; asati ca asampajaññañ ca ~o ca, Nett 127,1; instr, nissitacittā ayoniyā ca ~ena ca niddisitabbā, Nett 39,33; abl. ~ā bho vitakkehi majjasi, SN I 203,14* ( = anupāya-manasikārena, Spk); ~ā kāmarāgena additā, Thī 77 (Thī-a = Spk); [gen. ~assa (read yoniso°?) yoge ayuttatāya 'ayogino', Ja III 58,11'ḷ;
— °-manasikāra-padaṭṭhāna, mfn., "being the proximate cause of unwise attention", As 249,12 (m. ~o, scil. moho);
— °-manasikāra-bahulīkāra, m., augmenting a°; m. ~o ayaṁ āhāro, SN V 64,20 foll. = 103,27;
— °-manasikāra-mūlaka, mfn., havingfor its root (origin); pl. ~ā (scil. akusalā dhammā), Vibh-a 148,11 (cf. SN V 91,18);
— °-manasikāra-sambhūta, mfn., born of wrong judgement; n. ~aṁ, Ja IV 214,9;
— °-manasikāra-hetu, ind., on account of a°; AN V 187,2 foll.;
— [°-saṁvidhāna, n., see ayoni-saṁvidhāna].