Перевод "vivattacchaddā"

Автор Ассаджи, 19:49 30 июня 2016

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Бхиккху Бодхи пишет в примечании 713 к переводу четвертого раздела Ангуттара Никаи:

Readings of this enigmatic term vary here and elsewhere across the Nikāyas. Here, Ce has vivattacchaddā, Be vivaṭacchadā, Ee vivattacchadā. The expression often occurs in the stock passage on the two courses open to one with the thirty-two bodily marks of a great man: if he remains at home, he will become a wheel-turning king, but if he goes forth into homelessness, he will become a perfectly enlightened Buddha, described as "one in the world who vivaṭacchado" (variants: vivaṭṭacchado, vivaṭṭacchaddo, vivattacchaddo). See e.g. DN 3.1.5, I 89,8–9; DN 14.1.31, II 16,8–9; DN 30.1.1, III 142,4; MN 91.5, II 134,28; Sn 106. Though the origins of the term and its exact meaning are problematic, the commentaries consistently analyze and explain it in the same way. Since Mp (on the present sutta) does not offer an explanation, I cite the Dīgha Nikāya commentary, Sv I 250,34–251,3: "Vivaṭṭacchado: Here, having been born into the world, he dwells having entirely removed the covering in the world (loke taṃ chadanaṃ vivaṭṭetvā), in the darkness of defilements covered by seven coverings (chadanehi): lust, hatred, delusion, conceit, views, ignorance, and misconduct."
The old canonical commentary, Cūḷaniddesa, commenting on Sn 1147, says: "Vivaṭacchado: There are five coverings (chadanāni): craving, views, defilements, misconduct, ignorance. Those coverings have been removed (vivaṭāni) by the Blessed Buddha; they have been dispelled, uprooted, abandoned, eradicated, settled, stilled, burned by the fire of knowledge so that they are unable to arise. Therefore the Buddha is one who has removed the coverings" (Nidd II 251,18–22; VRI ed. 204).
Norman (1991: 71–76) had proposed that the Pāli expression was to be derived from the BHS form vighuṣṭaśabda and thus meant "one whose name (or fame) had rolled in different directions" or "one of widespread fame." In a later work (2006b: 228–29) he changed his position, stating: "although I was correct to see a connection between the Pāli and Skt words, the direction of the development was in the reverse order, and must represent a hyper-Sanskritisation from vivattacchadda." At Sn 372 and elsewhere he renders this "with deceit removed."
The Chinese translators of the Āgamas must have worked with texts that read vighuṣṭaśabda or some variant with the same meaning. Thus a parallel of 4:40, SĀ2 90 (at T II 404c6) has , "whose name is heard extremely far away." The parallel of DN 30, MĀ 59 (at T I 493b7–8), reads: ; "he necessarily becomes a Tathāgata, unattached (= arahant), fully enlightened, whose name spreads around and is heard in the ten directions." MĀ 161, the parallel of MN 91, has the same at T I 685b2–4. Though various conjectures might be proposed with respect to the original expression and its meaning, given the difficulty of settling these questions across Buddhist textual traditions, the most expedient course open to me is to translate the term as it has been preserved and interpreted in the Pāli tradition.