История "пути Бодхисатты" в Тхераваде

Автор Ассаджи, 20:35 15 февраля 2007

« назад - далее »


Доброго времени суток!

Меня заинтересовало то, как и когда в странах Юго-Восточной Азии развилось представление о том, что можно пойти по "пути Бодхисатты".

Как пишет досточтимый Ньянатилока, вначале такого не было:

"Neither in the canonical texts nor in the old commentaries is it stated that a follower of the Buddha may choose between the three kinds of enlightenment and aspire either to become a Buddha, a Pacceka-Buddha, or an Arahat-disciple. This conception of a choice between three aspirations is, however, frequently found in present-day Theravāda countries, e.g. in Sri Lanka."


Наиболее ранние свидетельства относятся к восьмому веку в Шри-Ланке:

By the eighth century C.E., the amalgamation between the institution of kingship and bodhisattvas became even stronger. At this time, we find evidence of certain Theravaadin kings in Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand who openly declared themselves to be bodhisattvas. For example, King Ni`s`sanka Malla (1187-1196 C.E.) of Polonnaruva, Ceylon, states that "I will show my self in my [true] body which is endowed with benevolent regard for and attachment to the virtuous qualities of a bodhisattva king, who like a parent, protects the world and the religion." (38) In other epigraphical markings, there is a reference to King Paraakramabaahu VI as "Bodhisatva [sic] Paraakrama Baahu." (39) Finally, the conflation of kings and bodhisattvas on the island of Sri Lanka is established most strongly by King Mahinda IV, who not only referred to himself as a bodhisattva as a result of his bodhisattva-like resolute determination, (40) but who even went so far as to proclaim that "none but the bodhisattas would become kings of prosperous La^nkaa." (41)


51 - There is evidence that suggests that certain lay people living in Sri Lanka took bodhisattva vows to attain buddhahood. For example, we find that two Sri Lankans, after freeing their children and wives from slavery, dedicated the merit derived from these actions "for the.benefit of all beings" (Epigraphia Zeylanica, 4:133, nos. 1-4) as well as to their own attainment of "Buddhahood as desired" (ibid., 4:133, nos. 2-3). We also find a similar wish made by a "lay" person who lived between the fifth and eighth centuries and who sculpted or commissioned the sculpting of a rock in the shape of a stuupa.


In Sri Lanka, in the 10th Century, King Mahinda IV (956-972 AD.) in an inscription proclaimed that "none but the Bodhisattvas would become kings of Sri Lanka (Ceylon)". Thus it was believed that kings of Sri Lanka were Bodhisattvas.

A Thera named Maha-Tipitaka Culabhaya who wrote the Milinda-Tika (about the 12th Century AD.) in the Theravada tradition of the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura, says at the end of the book in the colophon that he aspires to become a Buddha: Buddho Bhaveyyam "May I become a Buddha," which means that this author is a Bodhisattva.

We come across at the end of some palm leaf manuscripts of Buddhist texts in Sri Lanka the names of even a few copyists who have recorded their wish to become Buddhas, and they too are to be considered as Bodhisattvas. At the end of a religious ceremony or an act of piety, the bhikkhu who gives benedictions, usually admonishes the congregation to make a resolution to attain Nirvana by realising one of the three Bodhis - Sravakabodhi, Pratyekabodhi or Samyaksambodhi - as they wish according to their capacity.


"By about the tenth century, this belief had become so strong that the king of Sri Lanka had not only to be Buddhist but also a Bodhisatta. The Jetavanarama Slab Inscription of Mahinda IV (956-972 AD) proclaimed

"None but the Bodhisatta would become kings of Sri Lanka .......(who) .... received assurance (vyaran) from the Omniscent Buddha."


The bodhisattva concept had its influence in the evolution of kingship in Sri Lanka, too. For some time between the fourth and the eleventh centuries CE, the kings of Sri Lanka began to be regarded not as ordinary human beings but as bodhisattvas. The Jetavanarama slab-inscription of Mahinda IV and the Pritidanakamanapa inscription of Nissanka Malla are instances where the rulers refer to themselves as bodhisattvas. The Rajatarangani (p. 470 and the Nikayasamgrahava, ed. Kumaranatunga, p. 24) also bear evidence to this. Parakramabahu II says that he would become a Buddha (Mahavamsa, ch. 86, stz. 7).


Из истории Мьянмы:

In Burma, the relationship between kings and bodhisattvas is exemplified with King Kyanzittha, who claimed himself to be "the bodhisatva [sic], who shall verily become a Buddha that saves (and) redeems all beings, who is great in love (and) compassion for all beings at all times... [and] who was foretold by the Lord Buddha, who is to become a true Buddha." (42) In another instance, King Alaungsithu wrote that he would like to build a causeway to help all beings reach "The Blessed City [i.e., nirvaa.na]." (43) Finally, kings `Srii Tribhuvanaaditya, Thilui^n Ma^n, Ca~nsuu I, and Naato^nmyaa all referred to themselves as bodhisattvas. (44)

42 - Epigraphia Burmanica, 1:146.

43 - P. M. Tin, "The Shwegugyi Pagoda Inscriptions, Pagan 1141 A.D.," The Journal of the Burma Research Society 10 (2) (1920): 72.

44 - T. Tun, "Religion in Burma, A.D. 100-1300," The Journal of the Burma Research Society 42 (1959): 53.


After a war between the Mon and the Myanmar in which the Mon initially attacked and then conquered Ava itself, the Myanmar king Alaungpaya (1752-60), who believed himself a Bodhisatta, crushed Mon resistance once and for all. After Pago had fallen into his hands in 1756, Lower Myanmar was devastated and many of the Mon survivors fled to Thailand or were deported as slaves.


Bodawpaya is also reputed to have been beset by a form of megalomania. He wanted to force the Sangha to confirm officially that he was the Bodhisatta of the next Buddha to come in this world cycle, the Buddha Metteyya.


Из истории Таиланда:

In Thailand, a similar connection is drawn. One example of a Thai bodhisattva-king is Lu T'ai of Sukhothai who "wished to become a Buddha to help all beings... leave behind the sufferings of transmigration." (45) The relation between King Lu T'ai and bodhisattvahood is also manifested by the events occurring at his ordination ceremony that were similar to "the ordinary course of happenings in the career of a Bodhisattva." (46)



В предисловии к книге Manual of a Mystic (The Yogavachara's Manual) переводчик Ф.Л. Вудвард рассказывает о последнем монахе, владевшем этой практикой.

Последний носитель знаний этой школы на Шри Ланке, бхиккху Доратиявейе, живший в конце девятнадцатого-начале двадцатого века, решил не практиковать эту систему, решив не вступать на Путь и стать Бодхисаттой. Тем не менее он согласился обучить этой практике одного из своих учеников, который в результате сошел с ума и умер. Видимо, этого бы не случилось, если бы сам учитель сам полностью освоил эту систему практики. На этом линия передачи этой школы на Шри Ланке оборвалась.


Статья досточтимого Бхиккху Бодхи "Араханты, Будды и Бодхисаттвы"


Сергей О.

В тхеравадинском каноне однако описан по меньшей мере один случай, когда человек был буддийским монахом в одной из жизней, а потом стал Буддой. А именно, случай Будды Шакьямуни. :)
В сутре о Гхатикаре Будда рассказывает, как молодой человек Джотипала (Будда говорит в сутре, что Джотипалой был он сам) принял монашество при Будде Кассапе.


Цитата: Сергей О. от 15:21 23 февраля 2007
В тхеравадинском каноне однако описан по меньшей мере один случай, когда человек был буддийским монахом в одной из жизней, а потом стал Буддой. А именно, случай Будды Шакьямуни. :)
В сутре о Гхатикаре Будда рассказывает, как молодой человек Джотипала (Будда говорит в сутре, что Джотипалой был он сам) принял монашество при Будде Кассапе.

А описывается ли то, как следующий Будда (сейчас, соответственно, Бодхисатта) встретился с Сакьямуни?


В Каноне такого нет. Это из позднейших текстов.


During the time of Buddha Gotama, the Great Bodhisatta who is to be the next Buddha was a bhikkhu named Ajita.[34] According to the commentary on the Anagatavamsa, Ajita was the son of King Ajatasattu and Queen Kancanadevi.[35] Prince Ajita had five hundred attendants, and when he reached the age of sixteen, the king asked his son to inherit the Buddha's heritage. The Prince agreed, so the king took him to the Veuvana Monastery in great pomp and splendour along with his five hundred attendants. Prince Ajita was ordained as a novice, and because of his serenity, calmness, and wisdom he was much respected. Later he was ordained as a bhikkhu. The Buddha took him when he went from Rajagaha to Kapilavatthu to reside in the Nirodharama Monastery.

While they were residing at that monastery, Maha-Pajapati-Gotami came one day with two special cloths to be presented to the Buddha for use as robes. She had planted the cotton seeds herself and did all the necessary work up to the time the robes were finished. The account of the gift of the cloths is found in the Majjhima-nikaya.[36] There, the Buddha refused three times to accept the robes offered by Maha-Pajapati-Gotami and suggested that she offer them to the Sangha with the Buddha at its head. Ven. Ananda approached the Buddha, suggesting he should accept the cloths. The Buddha then gave the discourse on the analysis of offerings.

No other details are given in the Pali canon or Ashin Buddhaghosa's commentary on this discourse. In the commentary on the Anagatavamsa, it is said that the Buddha accepted one robe for himself and instructed his step-mother to offer the second one to the Sangha. But not one of the eighty leading disciples came forward to accept that robe. Eventually, Ven. Ajita thought to himself that the Buddha had told his step-mother to give the robe to the Sangha for her benefit, so he bravely got up like a king of the lions in the midst of the Sangha and accepted the robe. There was some disappointment and much talk about how an unknown bhikkhu could accept the robe when none of the leading disciples had taken it. Realizing the situation and in order to dispel any doubts, the Buddha said, "Do not say this bhikkhu is an ordinary bhikkhu. He is a Bodhisatta who will be the coming Buddha Metteyya." Then the Buddha took the bowl that had been given to him shortly after his Awakening by the world's four Guardian Devas and threw it into the air. None of the eighty leading disciples could retrieve it, but Ven. Ajita understood that the Buddha intended for him to show his psychic powers, so he brought back the bowl. Then Ven. Ajita took the cloth he had accepted and put it in the Buddha's Perfumed Chamber as a canopy under the ceiling, making the aspiration that this act of generosity might result in his having a canopy made of seven gems and with hangings made of gold, silver, coral, and pearls measuring twelve leagues when he becomes a Buddha.[37] The Buddha smiled after this and Ven. Ananda asked why he had smiled. The Buddha replied, "Ananda, the bhikkhu Ajita will become the Buddha Ari Metteyya in this Auspicious Aeon." Then he remained silent, enjoying the fruits of Arahatship. The first chief disciple, Ven. Sariputta, who knew the assembled bhikkhus wished to hear more information, requested the Buddha give a discourse about the coming Buddha. And the Buddha gave the account in the Anagatavamsa.

The prediction concerning Metteyya is found in the Pali canon,[38] but the details concerning the future Buddha will be given in a separate talk. The Dasavatthu goes on to say that from the time of the sure prediction, the Bodhisatta taught a large number of bhikkhus, explaining the whole canon and causing them to increase in insight and to attain the knowledge of adaptable patience. At the end of that life, he was reborn in a Deva world. But there is a reference to at least one other human life as he should have a life in which he is generous in the way the Bodhisatta Vessantara was.[39] After that life, he should be reborn in the Tusita Deva world, where all Great Bodhisattas reside before their final birth. According to the Culavamsa, the Bodhisatta would have other human births.[40]

When Ashin Buddhaghosa went from India to Ceylon to consult the commentaries on the Pali canon, he was given two verses to comment on as a test. The result was the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purification). The Devas, in order to convince the people of his greatness, hid the text twice so that Ashin Buddhaghosa had to copy it twice. When the copies were compared with the original, no deviations were found. The Sangha then exclaimed, "Without a doubt this is Metteyya!"


Кроме того,

"The Great Bodhisattas are confirmed in their aspiration by many Buddhas. A sixteenth-century Pali text from Thailand[27] says that Bodhisatta Metteyya received his prediction of future Buddhahood from Buddha Mahutta. This would presumably be the first prediction for him. This text also gives details of the period during which the Bodhisatta who became Buddha Gotama made a mental resolve to become a Teaching Buddha. This is shown to be his preparation for the life in which he received his first sure prediction. Bodhisatta Metteyya is mentioned as being associated with him in two of these lives: as his leading disciple when he was a religious teacher[28] and as his chaplain (named Sirigutta) when he was King Atideva.[29]

The story of one occasion when Bodhisatta Metteyya made an aspiration and when the perfection which is strongest for him is illustrated is told in Pali texts which were written down after the compilation of the canon.[30] The story of Bodhisatta Metteyya's aspiration was told to the leading disciple Ven. Sariputta when he was residing near Savatthi in the Pubbarama, the monastery offered by the laywoman Visakha."



По-видимому, представление о "пути Бодхисаттвы" возникло из взаимодействия индийского буддизма и традиций "маха-сиддхов", в том числе традиции Натх.

According to a recent Nath Guru, Shri Gurudev Mahendranath, another aim was to avoid reincarnation. In The Magick Path of Tantra, he wrote about several of the aims of the Naths,

   "Our aims in life are to enjoy peace, freedom, and happiness in this life, but also to avoid rebirth onto this Earth plane. All this depends not on divine benevolence, but on the way we ourselves think and act."


Основатель традиции Натх Матсьендра-натх почитается в тибетском буддизме как "Маха-сиддха".

"Mahasiddhas are a form of bodhisattva, meaning they not only have the spiritual abilities to enter nirvana whenever they please, but they are so compassionate they resolve to remain in samsara instead to help others."




Из статьи:
Avalokitesvara and Tibetan Contemplation, by Karen M. Andrews

The cult of Avalokitesvara also spread to Sri Lanka. This is a little surprising as Sri Lanka primarily follows Theravada Buddhism, while Avalokitesvara was originally a strictly Mahayana conception. In Sri Lanka, he is called Natha, which is an abbreviation of Lokesvaranatha, which means "Lord of the World". He has become identified with the bodhisattva Maitreya, the "future Buddha". He is also seen as being identical with several Hindu gods. Natha is seen as the guardian deity of Sri Lanka, and is reportedly worshipped primarily because he is regarded as a pragmatically useful source of advantages in the phenomenal world. Although I have been able to find very little information on it, apparently the cult of Natha has also spread with little change to other Theravada Buddhist countries, such as Cambodia and Burma.

In Nepal, Avalokitesvara is conflated with the Brahman deity Matsyendranath. He is worshipped in elaborate rituals which are performed by a priestly caste. Ordination is handed down from father to son, with some important positions being sold to the highest bidder from within the caste. According to one reporter, the meanings behind the rituals have been largely forgotten. However, they continue to be performed because they are customary and are considered to bring luck.


Мне передали ссылки на четыре изображения статуй Авалокитешвары в Юго-Восточной Азии:

Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara: Sri Lanka; 8th - 9th century

Standing four-armed Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of Infinite
Compassion, ca. 9th century; Peninsular or Shrivijaya style

Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, 8th century
Thailand: Buriram Province, Prakhon Chai, 700-799

Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of Infinite Compassion, Seated in Royal
Ease Angkor period, Khmer style of Banteay Shrei,; fourth quarter of the
10th C.


Первый тхеравадинский текст по "пути Бодхисаттвы", "Трактат о совершенствах (парами)" Дхаммапалы, опирается на "Бодхисаттва-бхуми", пятнадцатую главу "Йогачара-бхуми", текст школы Йогачара, авторство которого приписывается учителю Асанги Майтрея-натхе.




ЦитироватьI think a work like the biography of Ajahn Mun is a good modern snapshot of how such 'proto-mahayana' developments might have taken place. Here's a meditation master, who spent a lot of his time on the fringes of Buddhist society in the forest with forest masters (not unlike how it is believed the prajnaparamita groups developed), chatting up Buddhas in other realms, receiving teachings from 'deceased arhats' and describing how what he learned about reality every day since becoming an arhat was vaster than could ever be described in scripture.


ЦитироватьThere is a common assumption that all the strict forest monks practising the dhutangas in isolation from society are doing so with the purpose of reaching arahantship in this very life, to get out of samsara ASAP. However, if we look at the earliest Bodhisattva sutras, they also advise the bodhisattva to practise in this same way, in order to emulate the historical Buddha (as portrayed in the Jataka tales) and to become a Buddha in the future themselves. Therefore it is not surprising to find out that a number of the disciples of Ajahn Mun in the Thai forest tradition have in fact made the bodhisattva determination, for example Ajahn Viriyang (Wat Mahamongkhon, Bangkok), Ajahn Sri Mahaviro (Wat Mahachaimonghon, Roi Et), Ajahn Somchai (Wat Khao Sukim, Chonburi). Also some Burmese Sayadaws (e.g. Taungpulu Sayadaw who never laid down) and Sri Lankan forest monks (e.g. the current head of Na Uyana Forest monastery) have made the same determination.


Насчёт Ажана Мана эти сведения надо проверять. Скорее похоже на мистификацию его биографии фанатиками-мирянами, а не на реальную биографию.


Досточтимый Па Аук Саядо пишет о пути Бодхисатты в своей книге "Знание и видение". Он провел серию лекций на эту тему в Тайване, и они опубликованы на китайском языке. Его западные ученики -- досточтимый Дхаммадипа, Шайла Катрин, Стивен Снайдер и Тина Расмуссен -- последователи Махаяны.

P.S. Просьба общаться не только цитатами, и высказывать собственное мнение, а то получается общение с отсутствующими здесь людьми.


ЦитироватьЕго западные ученики -- досточтимый Дхаммадипа, Шайла Катрин, Стивен Снайдер и Тина Расмуссен -- последователи Махаяны.

И это вроде как немного странно...


ЦитироватьЕго западные ученики -- досточтимый Дхаммадипа, Шайла Катрин, Стивен Снайдер и Тина Расмуссен -- последователи Махаяны.

Про Шейлу Катрин - это скорее из серии "все буддийские и индуистские традиции одинаковы".
Через Fuerth'a заказал её книгу по джханам - которая вышла в 2008. В принципе довольно подробно
описывается практика, даются ценные советы. Но когда речь заходит о прозрении и освобождении
на основании джхан - вот тут у неё начинается "вода", а признать что ниббана - это полное прекращение
восприятия и ума она так и не смогла - хотя Па Аук Саядо об этом в своих лекциях совершенно чётко
и однозначно говорит. Вообщем все эти люди, видимо, выбирают у Па Аук Саядо то, что приемлемо для
их мировозрения, а то, что не соответствует их взглядам - они отбрасывают. Такие ученики..


ЦитироватьВообщем все эти люди, видимо, выбирают у Па Аук Саядо то, что приемлемо для
их мировозрения, а то, что не соответствует их взглядам - они отбрасывают. Такие ученики..

Да уж, ну это Вы "мягко говоря" как-то.

Ведь Ассаджи написал, что они последователи Махаяны.


Интересно, что "хатха-йога" - это тоже наследие традиции натхов.

Первую книгу с таким названием, "Хатха-йога", составил Горакха-натха, ученик Матсьендра-натха. Эта работа не сохранилась, но сохранился комментарий к ней Свами Сватмарамы, "Хатха-йога-прадипика".


Согласно книге:

The Natha School and the Origins of Hatha Yoga


традиция натхов также находилась у истоков синтеза ислама и индуизма, а именно сикхизма Гуру Нанака.

По словам одного моего знакомого, проведшего в Индии много лет, традиция натхов продолжает оставаться скрытой, и этим объясняется небольшое количество западных исследований на эту тему.


Книга по традиции натхов и сиддханте:

The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India
David Gordon White



Цитата: Asita от 15:52 03 февраля 2009
ЦитироватьВообщем все эти люди, видимо, выбирают у Па Аук Саядо то, что приемлемо для
их мировозрения, а то, что не соответствует их взглядам - они отбрасывают. Такие ученики..

Да уж, ну это Вы "мягко говоря" как-то.

Ведь Ассаджи написал, что они последователи Махаяны.

Собственно, по Па Аук Саяду последователь Махаяны в аспекте практики ничем и не отличается от [censored]. Посему что то отвергать смысла большого нет.