Первая запись палийского канона в Алувихаре

Автор Ассаджи, 16:53 03 января 2008

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О записи: http://www.amazinglanka.com/heritage/aluvihare/aluvihare.php

О приготовлении пальмовых листьев: http://aluvihara.virusinc.org/appendix1.html

Эволюция сингальского алфавита: http://aluvihara.virusinc.org/appendix2.html

Алувихара в наши дни: http://youtube.com/watch?v=bfrmhnDOfoE


Самая древняя палийская рукопись сохранилась в Мьянме, на двадцати золотых листках в серебряной раке:

The oldest surviving Buddhist texts in the Pali language come from the relic chamber of a Buddhist stupa at Sri Ksetra. They consist of a twenty-leaf manuscript of solid gold and a large gilded reliquary of silver (Fig. 2). A new and exhaustive palaeographic study of these inscriptions shows that they date from the mid-fifth to mid-sixth century AD. Unlike all the other early Buddhist societies of Southeast Asia, evidence of Mahayanist contacts in Pyu sites is scant. It is clear that the Pyu kingdoms were in contact with several Indian kingdoms in the south east as well as in North India, but stood in a tutelary relationship to none. From the earliest evidence, Pyu Buddhist writing, art, and architecture show processes of adaptation at work that laid the foundations for distinctively Burmese traditions of Buddhism within the greater Buddhist eucumene.

The Pyu Civilisation of Myanmar and the city of Sri Ksetra



729 мраморных плит с Палийским каноном в Мандалае (высечены к Пятому Буддийскому Собору, 1868-1871)



Orality, writing and authority in South Asian Buddhism:
visionary literature and the struggle for legitimacy in the Mahayana

David McMahan




Надпись в Хатхигумпхе, язык которой близок к языку пали, была сделана во втором веке до нашей эры:


"The only inscription, the language of which is akin to Pali, is the Hati-Gumpha inscription of Kharavela, dated the 160th year of the Maurya era."




Норман пишет о надписи в Хатхигумпхе на четвертой странице своей работы:

"The language of the Hāthigumphā inscription, although it agrees with Pāli in the retention of most intervocalic consonants and in the nominative singular in -o, nevertheless differs in that the absolutive ending is -(t)tā, and with two doubtful exceptions there are no consonant groups containing -r-.

While it is not impossible that there existed in India in the third century B. C. an unattested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan which had all the features of Pāli, the fact that some of the consonant clusters found in Pali are unhistoric and must therefore represent incorrect attempts at backformation, e.g. disvā (which cannot be from dṛṣṭvā) and atraja (which cannot be from ātmaja), makes it more likely that by the third century B.C. the dialect of the canonical texts of the Theravādins conformed to the general pattern of Middle Indo-Aryan dialects of that time, and all consonant clusters had either been assimilated or resolved. It is probable that this represented the form of the language of the Theravādin canon at the time of the reign of Asoka, which was perhaps the lingua franca of the Buddhists of Eastern India, and not very different from the language of the Hāthigumpha inscriptions. "



Цитата: Ассаджи от 14:07 24 апреля 2012
Надпись в Хатхигумпхе, язык которой близок к языку пали, была сделана во втором веке до нашей эры


Позволил себе преобразовать цитаты из надписи из деванагари в латиницу:



Ричард Саломон пишет по поводу надписей:

All in all, the Aśokan inscriptions give a broad view of the dialect spectrum of MIA vernaculars in the third century B.C. But it must also be understood that they do not provide anything like a real dialectal map of the time. For the geographical distribution of the dialects - especially of the eastern dialect - can hardly correspond with linguistic reality; the eastern dialect was obviously not the mother tongue of residents of the far north and the central south, though it was used for inscriptions (Kālsī, Eṛṛaguḍi, etc.) in those regions. Moreover, the languages as they are presented in the inscriptions are surely not exact renditions of the contemporary vernaculars.


After the Mauryan period there is a major shift in the linguistic features of the inscriptional Prakrits. The predominance of the eastern dialect of the Aśokan and other inscriptions of the Mauryan period ends abruptly; in fact, not a single inscriptional record in eastern dialect has been found from the post-Mauryan era. The dominant role in all regions except the northwest and Sri Lanka falls hereafter to a variety of Prakrit which most resembles, among the Aśokan dialects, the western dialect of the Girnār rock edicts, and which among literary languages has the most in common with Pāli and archaic forms of Śauraseni. In other words, this dialect partakes of the typical characteristics of the western and central MIA languages: nominative singular masculine in -o, retention of Sanskrit r and l, predominance of the sibilant s, and so on. Like the Aśokan Prakrits, this central-western epigraphic Prakrit is still relatively archaic, with only occasional intervocalic voicing of unvoiced stops and elision of voiced stops. But unlike some of the Aśokan inscriptions, consonant groups from Sanskrit are nearly always assimilated.

The causes of the abrupt dialectal shift from east to west undoubtedly lie in political and historical developments, that is, the decline of Magadha as the center of power in northern India after the collapse of the Mauryan empire and the movement of the center of political power in the following centuries toward the west and northwest. Like the eastern dialect under Aśoka, the central-western dialect of the post-Mauryan era was used far beyond what must have been its original homeland. Thus we find inscriptions in this standard epigraphic Prakrit as far afield as Orissa in the east, for instance, in the Hāthīgumphā inscription (SI 1.213-21), while in the south it is abundantly attested in inscriptions from such sites as Nāgārjunakoṇḍa and Amarāvatī. This central-western MIA dialect was, in fact, virtually the sole language in epigraphic use in the period in question, and therefore seems, like Pāli, to have developed into something like a northern Indian lingua franca, at least for epigraphic purposes, in the last two centuries B.C.

This is not to say that the inscriptions in this dialect, which Senart called "Monumental Prakrit", are totally devoid of local variations. ... But all in all, the standard epigraphic or "Monumental" Prakrit can be treated as essentially a single language whose use spread far beyond its place of origin, and which should not be taken to represent the local vernacular of every region and period where it appears.

R. Salomon - Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages


Получается, что магадхи (пали) как язык межэтнического общения, несколько видоизменившись, охватил и многие другие регионы Индии, о чем свидетельствуют многочисленные надписи.
А язык надписей Асоки мало о чем говорит.


Питер Скиллинг подробно описывает надписи на пали 5-8 века в королевствах Пью и Мон (в наше время в Мьянме и Таиланде):

The Advent of Theravada Buddhism to Mainland South-east Asia



Можно сделать вывод о таких стадиях развития магадхи как языка межэтнического общения, поддерживаемого на государственном уровне:
- магадхи высших слоев общества времен Будды, сохранившийся в палийских текстах; династия Харьянка;
- язык при династиях Шайшунага и Нанда - не дошел до нас ни в письменном, ни в устном виде;
- язык указов Асоки - как язык межэтнического общения времен империи Маурьев (317—180 до н. э.);
- язык надписей от распада империи Маурьев и до санскритизации, династий Сатавахана и Махамегхавана. Последние такие надписи относятся к третьему-четвертому векам нашей эры.


Надпись в шри-ланкийской пещере Мулгиригала 3-2 веков до нашей эры, с упоминанием декламаторов Мадджхима Никаи.

Brahmi Inscriptions at Mulkirigala (Mulgirigala) rock cave temple monastery

Inscription: bata cudatisaha ena
Translation: The cave of Lord Culatissa
Inscription: majhima banaka bata upasonaha lena agata anagata
Translation: The cave of Lord Upasona, the reciter of the Majjhima Nikaya (is given to the sangha of the four quarters,) present and absent.

According to the Sri Lanka's foremost archeologist late Dr. Senerath Paranavitana, who edited these inscriptions among thousands of others, Mulkirigala (Mulgirigala) rock cave temple monastery belongs to the early form of Brahmi script of 3rd century B.C. to the 2nd century B.C. The inscriptions reveal that the caves have been an adobe of Sangha, the Buddhist monks of Sri Lanka.



Фото от Павла Цветкова:

Пальма Ола или Пальмирская пальма, "Корифа зонтоносная", из листьев которой изготовляли страницы для начертания на них Палийского канона. Снято возле Алувихары.

Станок для распрямления листьев пальмы Ола:

Бхиккху Кхеминда

В Индии до сих пор выжил язык Магадхи , теперь известен как Магахи, распространён в Бихаре и Уттар прадеш.



Цитата: Ассаджи от 08:33 06 марта 2008
Самая древняя палийская рукопись сохранилась в Мьянме, на двадцати золотых листках в серебряной раке: ...

Палийский текст 5-го века на золотых пластинах из Шрикшетры



Цитата: Ассаджи от 20:41 30 октября 2013
Цитата: Ассаджи от 14:07 24 апреля 2012
Надпись в Хатхигумпхе, язык которой близок к языку пали, была сделана во втором веке до нашей эры


Позволил себе преобразовать цитаты из надписи из деванагари в латиницу:


В этой надписи, находящейся в нынешней Ориссе (Одише), можно заметить характерные черты языка ория (одиа). Таким образом, пали оказывается одним из предков языка ория (одиа).

Эта взаимосвязь описана как связь пракрита магадхи и языка уткали на диаграмме в книге "A Literary History of India":

"The script in the Ashokan edicts at Dhauli and Jaugada and the inscriptions of Kharavela in Hati Gumpha of Khandagiri give us the first glimpse of possible origin of Oriya language. From the point of  view  of  language,  the  inscriptions  of  Hati Gumpha are near modern Oriya and essentially different from the language of the Ashokan edicts. A point has also been made as to whether Pali was the prevalent language in Orissa during this period. Hati Gumpha inscriptions, which is in Pali, is perhaps the only evidence of stone inscriptions in Pali. This may be the reason why the famous German linguist Prof. Oldenburg mentioned that Pali was the original language of Orissa."


1. Jaugada Inscription (3 rd Century B.C.)

Sentence-Debānā piye hebam āhā samāpāyam mhāmatā lāj bachanika batabiyā am kichhi dakhāmi hakam Tami (chhā) mi hakam (Kim) ti kmamana......

Odia Words: Dakhāmi (looking), Manisha (man), Athha (eight), Rajina (king), Bahmuna (Brahamin), Sineha (love), Sahasa (Thousend), mita (friend), Hoiti (have), Aāja (today), Ei (Its), osadha (Medicine), 'kichhi' (something), 'tini' (three), 'pachha' or pichha (back), 'panati' or pananati (great grandson), 'alibi' or lipi (script) and 'lieu' or nahebu (won't be), 'anal' (Achaia), 'hidalgo' (halogen), Budha (Oldman), Badhi (Large), Tamba (Copper), pani (Vagitable), Se (He), Hāti (Elephant), Siri (Sri), Puta (Son), Kale (Do), Sata (Truth), Nilathāy (Nothing), Hoti ( ), etc.

[Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1880, P-379ff, Indian Antiquary. Vol.XIX, P-82ff]

2. Hātigumphā Inscription (1 st Century B.C.)

Sentence- Airē a mahārājēna mahāmēghavāhanēna cētarāja vasa ṇ vadhanēna pasatha subhalakhalēna caturantaluṭhana guṇa'upēnēta kaliṅgādhipatinā siri khāravēlēna.........

Odia Words: Luthita (ଲୁ ଠି ତ), Siri (ସି ରି), Pandarasa (ପOରସ), lekha-Rupa-Ganana-Babahara (ଲଖ - ରୁ ପ - ଗଣନା - ବବହାର), Saba (ସବ), Jobarajam (ଜାବଗଜଂ), Purisa (ପୁରିସ), Juge (ଜୁ େଗ), Maharaja (ମହାଗଜା), Padhamebata (ପଧେମବାତ), Bihata (ବି ହତ), Gopura (ଗାପୁର), Pakara (ପକାର), Sitala (ସି ତଳ), Dutiye (ଦୁ ତିେୟ), Pachima (ପଛିମ), Disam (ଦିସଂ), Bahulam (ବହୁ ଳଂ), Dandam (ଦଂଡଂ), Patha (ପଠା), Tatiye (ତତିେୟ), Nata (ନତ), Gita (ଗି ତ), Badita (ବାଦିତ), Cabuthe (ଚବୁ େଠ), Ratana (ରତନ), Rathika (ରଠିକ), Bhojake (ଭାଜେକ), Pade (ପାେଦ), Pancame (ପଂଚେମ), Tibasa (ତିବସ), Sata (ସତ), Tanasuliya (ତମସୁଲିୟା), Bata (ବାଟ), Panalim (ପଣାଳି ଂ), Kara (କର), Banam (ବଣଂ), Satamam (ସତମଂ), Gharini (ଘରି ଣି), Bati (ବତି), Pada (ପଦ), Punna (ପୁଂନ), Kamma (କଂମ), Sena (ସନ), Bahane (ବାହେନ), Radha (ରଧ), Ghara (ଘର), Basa (ବାସ), Paribasena (ପରି ବେସନ), Gahana (ଗହନ), Bamhanana (ବଂହଣାନ), Jati (ଜାତି), Raja (ଗଜା), Sannibasam (ସଂନି ବାସଂ), Athatisaya (ଅଠତିସାୟ), Dasame (ଦସେମ), Ekadasame (ଏକାଦସେମ), Mani (ମଣି), Ratanani (ରତନାନି), Hathi (ହO), Barasame (ବାରସେମ), Pade (ପାେଦ), Abhuta (ଅଭୁ ତ), Naba (ନବ), Terasame (ତରସେମ), Caka (ଚକ), Pabate (ପବେତ), Pujanurata (ପୁଜାନୁ ରତ), Deha (ଦହ), Tapasi (ତପସି), Aneka (ଅେନକ), Jojanahi (ଜାଜନାହି), Catura (ଚତୁ ର), Gabhe (ଗେଭ), Thambhe (ଥଂେଭ), Patithapayati (ପଟିଠାପୟତି), Panatariya (ପାନତରିୟ), Muriya (ମୁରିୟ), Kala (କାଳ), Coyathi(ଗୟଠି), Bhikhu(ଭି ଖୁ), Sunata (ସୁଣତ), Anubhabata (ଅନୁ ଭବତ), Kalanani (କଳଣାନି), Guna (ଗୁଣ), Bisesa (ବି େସସ), Kusala (କୁ ସଳ), Pujaka (ପୁଜକ), Caki (ଚକି), Bahini (ବାହିନି), Bala (ବଳ), Dhura (ଧୁର), Guta (ଗୁତ), etc.

[ Epigraphica Indica Vol. XX, 1929-30].

3. Udayagiri and Khandagiri Manchapuri Caves Inscription (1 st Century A.D.)

Sentence-Airasa Maharajasa Kalingadhipatino. Mahameghavahanasa Kudepasirinolena.

Odia Word: All are Ancient Odia.

4. Maharaja Ganabhadra Bhadrakali Inscription (3 rd Century A.D.)

Sentence-Sidham mharāj siri gana udasa mulajape deba 3 Jana (ā) dhabana 80 mahākulapati āyaya agisamenka pānideb.......

[Epigraphica Indica Vol. XXIX, Vol-XXIII].

Subrat Prusty



Aruna K. Gamage
Old Prakrit Characteristics in Tipiṭaka Pāli: a brief survey


29§) Evidently, a substantial amount of old Prakrit forms can be found in the Pāli canon. The affinity between Pāli and Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit is considerably close. Some parallel occurrences can be found in both Buddhist and Jain primary sources. Especially, this tendency notably can be seen in narratives that have been illustrated to culminate the power of morality and ethical conduct in both traditions. Interestingly, as reflected in number of canonical accounts, wandering ascetics seems to have used some provisional Prakrit such as Paiśācī, Apabhraṃśa etc and only limited canonical evidence can be found where the Buddha used other dialects except for examples. Some expressions and terms in language used in the Kathāvatthu are fairly different from that of the other canonical texts. Although the Kathāvatthu has a well-formalized and systematized language which is extremely apt to describe rational argumentations, immense Prakrit influence in it implies the notation that at the time where it is composed some non-Pāli middle Indo-Āryan dialects have reached to a higher social esteem.

30§) However, some particles which are often occur in the Pāli canon have been thoroughly influenced by Māgadhism. Particularly, seyyathīdaṃ, yebhuyyena (supra: 12§-16§) have a wider attestations in the canon. Some colloquial terms, uncultured expressions occasionally that can be gleaned from the Pāli canon as it has been pointed out above users of these expressions are always non-Buddhists, unsophisticated people or angered people. Perhaps, it may be the reason for the limited availability of those types of terms in the canon is the Buddha's prohibition (supra: 24§) for using such expressions.